Образ дитинства в автобіографічному творі Й.-В. Ґете "Поезія і правда"

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Шалагінов, Борис
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Розглянуто естетичне підґрунтя "Поезії і Правди" Й.-В. Ґете, пов'язане з природознавчими зацікавленнями поета, зроблено зіставлення з ренесансною і бароковою біографіями дитинства, з'ясовано типологію жанру просвітницької автобіографії з опорою на філософію І. Канта, обґрунтовано поняття онтогенетичного "канону", проаналізовано категорію часу, окремі елементи поетики твору.
The paper focuses on the visualization of childhood in the autobiographical work of J. W. Goethe entitled "Poetry and Truth". The idea of childhood's "historicism", i.e. the way from nature to civilization, has been grounded within the context of artistic peculiarities of the German literature classical writer's autobiography and the enlightment interprettation put on childhood as the basis for the understanding of adult life. The paper argues that the theme of childhood fully embraces all the paradigmatic concepts of the enlightment: the original image; the development from elementary to complex; an element and a system; integrity; polarity; "growth" ("potentiation"); historicism; humanity and tolerance; nature and civilization. In the autobiography of J. W. Goethe his own childhood is viewed in such a way. The paper strongly emphasizes a fairly realistic manner of narrative of "Poetry and Truth": the writer rather aims at adapting childhood for the adult world of values than revealing its high values. J. W. Goethe produces an identical copy of his own childhood. According to his own principle of "potentiation", he renders it on a higher level of knowledge and reflexion than it is accessible to children. The biographer accentuates only potential features of his childhood reminiscences, which he makes almost living. Thus his visualization of childhood is based on past experience at a mature age. It should also be noted that J. W. Goethe's childhood was neither a thing of the past nor something alien to him. The writer penetrates deeply into his own "I" and due to this the childhood depicted in his autobiography can be characterized as the 'identical-with-itself distinction'. The biographical model used by J. W. Goethe, first and foremost, provides us with a better insight into a personality development towards mental equilibrium. Hence it gives, instead of a starting point of ontogenesis, its ultimate goal - an educated person. Therefore childhood is the process of the persistent formulation of essential vital principles.
автобіографія, дитинство, Просвітництво, "штюрмерство", Ренесанс, бароко, онтогенеза, онтогенетичний канон, історизм, "прафеномен", стаття, autobiography, childhood, Enlightment, Sturm und Drang, Reneissance, Baroque, ontogenesis, ontogenetic canon, historicism
Шалагінов Б. Б. Образ дитинства в автобіографічному творі Й.-В. Ґете "Поезія і правда" / Борис Шалагінов // Іноземна філологія: укр. наук. зб. / Львів. нац. ун-т ім. Івана Франка; [М. Е. Білинський (відп. ред.)]. - Львів: Євросвіт, 2007. - Вип. 119. - С. 123- 131.