"16 лет в СССР": спогади Фредеріка Леграна

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Клименко, Оксана
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У статті запропоновано аналіз спогадів бельгійського робітника Фредеріка Леграна про Країну Рад міжвоєнного періоду. На прикладі цих споминів представлено основні характеристики, як «потрібно» було говорити «по-більшовицьки» та як «правильно» «пригадувати» минуле до 1917 року та радянську добу. Також встановлено основні маркери, які мала використовувати «нова» радянська людина, розповідаючи про свою участь у «соціалістичному будівництві».
The article offers an analysis of the memoirs by worker Frederic Legran about his life in the Soviet Union in the interwar period. These memoirs were published in Moscow in 1933. In the 1930s, “writing” the history of different factories and industrial facilities became the main activity of the Commission on the History of Factories and Plants under the Central Committee of the CPSU(b). The basis of this campaign was “gathering” workers’ memoirs about “building socialism.” One of the methods of “correctly” “remembering” was “evenings of reminiscences” where workers’ stories were corrected according to the “collective method” of verification (discussions, additions) in case workers “made some mistakes.” In addition, the Commission prepared the recommendations on how to “remember” “building socialism” in a “right way.” They were published in the press and special publications. “Remembering” the past was a part of a broader process of shaping a political and social identity of the people in the USSR. Writing workers’ reminiscences was also a part of creating the “new” Soviet man with a new identity and attitude to work: everybody’s job was explained as a continuous struggle for the “bright socialist future.” Such a thesis, according to which nobody had the right not to work, contributed to identification of an individual with some collective. The article presents how the worker who was a Belgian foreigner tried to become the “new” Soviet man. It characterizes Legran’s discourse about himself, trying to show that he was a Soviet worker, not a foreigner – “alien”, “other”. One of the features of the “new” man was his ability to say about his past and the past of the country “rightly”. The article determines the basic “rules” that prescribed how to speak “like a Bolshevik.” Also it analyzes the “rules” on how it was “necessary” to talk about the time before 1917 and after the October Revolution, especially about “building socialism.” The article characterizes different parts of reminiscences depending on who is “talking” about Legrand: he or another person retelling his story. The author has reconstructed the scheme of “creating” the memoirs by Legran. In addition, the reasons of absence of changes in the text are identified.
1917 рік, робітник, "соціалістичне будівництво", СРСР, 1917 year, worker, “building socialism”, the USSR, стаття
Клименко О. М. "16 лет в СССР": спогади Фредеріка Леграна / Клименко О. М. // Наукові записки НаУКМА. Історичні науки. - 2017. - Т. 194. - С. 82-89.